Theory of
Hierarchy of Relativity
Short update Addendum added on 12 February 2010:

Theory of Hierarchy of Relativity Addendum

Relativity is impacted by proximity.  

Don Edward Sprague,  

Copyright © 2007, 2008, 2009

All objects, regardless of size, shape or makeup, are moving in space.  Therefore, there aren't any bodies or objects that are static.
Objects are only somewhat static relative to other objects. Actually a solid object isn't solid because every part of the object is made of
moving objects. Every planet has a compound movement in space. It spins as well as moves around the sun which is also moving in
space in some direction.  A spot on a bicycle wheel is similar to a planet's movement.  The spot on the wheel goes in a circle around
the hub while the hub moves down the street while the street moves with the earth. The path of the spot on the wheel forms a series of
arches relative to the street.  Likewise,  a planet's movement around the sun is somewhat of a circle relative to the sun but it's a curved
line relative to distant objectives in space. Actually, a spot on a bicycle wheel is considerable different than a planet because the spot
on the wheel is basically a fixed distance from the hub while a planet isn't a fixed distance from  the sun. Half of the time, the  planets
are moving against the sun's movement and the other half of the time,  the planets are racing in the same direction as the  sun. The
sun’s path through space doesn't form a perfect circle because it is trailing or racing the center of the galaxy.  As a result,  a moon's
orbit is impacted by the movement of the  planet which is impacted by the  moon and the sun's movement  which is impacted by the
moon's and plants and galaxy movement and so on.    

If an object on earth were to suddenly and completely become isolated from all association with earth and separated from any and all
forces that tie it to the earth or it's movement,  the object would seemingly move at a massive speed in some direction. Actually,  the
object would stop or become static in space relative to earth while the earth moves in some direction and at some speed. This is true
for any size or type of object. The seemingly  movement of the isolated object's speed and direction would be different based on time of
day and time of year.  It would also change from year to year  The relative speed and direction of the objects movement from earth could
be determined based on the speed and direction of earth's movement in space relative to other points in space.  

We have defined how each objects movement in space impacts other objects. That is because every objects exerts forces within the
universal magnetic field.  As the moon goes around the earth, it exerts forces on objects on earth like water in the oceans.  Planetary
alignment also exerts forces on the earth.  The impact of those objects interaction with earth is also impacted by the relative speed and
direction of planets and the sun as they travel through space.  At some time of the year,  the earth will be trailing the sun's path through
space.  Likewise, at some time of the day, the moon will be further trailing the earth's trailing position  behind the sun's movement
through space.  Conversely,  at another time of the year, the earth and moon will be in front of the sun's movement in space.  Those
conditions have a directional movement impact as well as the gravitational impact of the various bodies.

Structural changes impact the directional and gravitational forces.  Obviously,  if a planet were to explode after being struck by a
massive asteroid, the movement of other planets in the solar system would be impacted.   A large earth quake will impact a planet's
movement.  A carefully placed explosive will bring down a building in a predictable way.  A pool player can put the proper spin on the
balls to cause them to go as predicted.  The same applies to all objects regardless of size or structure or movement.  A tiny object that
is properly guided can impact a tiny object causing a part of the object to be displaced.  All the conditions about the displaced object
can be accurately predicted if enough control is maintained over the experiment.  Small size makes it more difficult to  control all the
variables.  As mentioned earlier, even the earth's movement impacts a tiny objects liberation from it's contact with another object.  

I placed a peace of steel on an electro magnet. The steel became magnetized. I left it on the electromagnet for a long time  and it had a
stronger magnetism. I put the steel in a demagnetizing device and it lost it's magnetism.  Different materials become more magnetic
easier than others and some materials hold magnetism longer than others.  This shows that composition as well as change in
composition impacts an object and surrounding objects.  

We now see that an object is impacted in at least four ways which are gravity,  motion and composition and structural changes.  The
extent of the impact is altered based on all the conditions and proximity of all influencing objects relative to any influenced objects.  


When we observe any event, we are watching the results of what happened sometime ago and any measurements of the conditions of
that past moment will always be related to all conditions prior to the past moment.  


As objects change, those changes have both direct and indirect impact on the conditions of other objects. Gravity,  movement,
composition, and structural changes of one or more objects are variables that impact the universal magnetic field and other objects will
be impacted by those variables.  


Every object is impacted by all other objects withing a variable proximity based on all four factors.  One type of impact can be offset by
the other type of impacts based on their extent and  proximity.   

All speeds of all objects can me measured relative to the speed and perspective of one or more observers in various locations and the
results from observer to observer must and do correlate if all data is accurately collected and included.

Since the movement of objects in time and space can be consistently measures and accurately predicted, then space is static while
time progresses at a constant rate with all objects continually move at some speeds and directions through space and time.


The change of any condition of any object can be accurately projected based on all the characteristics of that object and all impact of the
characteristics of all other direct or indirect objects.  The characteristics of an object include but are not limited to it's mass,  energy,
gravity, motion, composition, and structural changes.  

Single frame relative speed and cross frame speeds of moving objects:  

The speed of light on the earth or any other moving platform is consistently measured to be "c" regardless of the point on earth or the
time of day or the month.  This is true even though the point where the measurement is taken is continually changing direction and
speed just as the spot on a bicycle continually changes speed and direction. Therefore,  the speed of light on a moving object is
obviously relative to the object where the measurement is made.  

If the speed any object, including the speed of light, is measured via round trip on a moving object,  the cross frame additive speed in
one direction is offset by the subtractive cross frame speed on the return trip.  Therefore,  a round trip doesn't give an accurate "additive
cross frame" speed of the moving object or speed of light. A round trip speed measurement can only accurately measure the time for
the round trip tip to occur between two points on  a moving object.  To determine the "additive speeds" of objects "across frames",  the
combined speeds can be added to give a cumulative speed.    


We like to think about  the beginning.  What about the time before the beginning.  Man can't know certain things.  With that in mind,
consider a time where there is a state of absolute equilibrium.  Everything is at it's most wide spread dispersion.  There is a complete
balance among all stuff throughout space. There is no movement. There is no energy.  Then a little quiver happens.  Motion begins.  It
could be that some small speck of stuff either split or ceased to exist which caused an imbalance.  Then there is contention between
stuff and space.  From that,  we would have a sort of musical chairs that never ends.  As some stuff moves to fill space, there is a void
that must be filled. Stuff moves to fill voids.  Stuff pushes other stuff as it bunches up.

This update entry made on 12 February 2010:

After reviewing various experiments to measure the speed of light,  I wasn't able to find  any that weren't round trip measurement
relative to the moving earth.  That is;  None of the experiments were on another platform that isn't riding on earth or has a fixed
relationship relative to earth.  Thus,  All round trip measurements of the speed of light only confirm that the speed of light is c relative to
earth.  None show the speed of a round trip for light relative to a train going some speed on earth.  None show the speed of a round trip
of light on a spacecraft.  

Thus,  we only have experimental evidence that the speed of light is c relative to earth.  We assume, without experimental proof, that the
speed of light is c relative to the train.  

I did not update the paper to address the different experimental evidence vs the assumption, made with out evidence.   

Copyright © 2007 2008 2009

Don Edward Sprague. All rights reserved.
Commonality across frames.

We all know that all things exist at an instant in time.  We also know that all things can be located through any number of x,y,z
coordinates or frames of reference.  We also know that some things are fixed along the x,y,z coordinates through time and some
things have movement over time.  A seat rivet on a train can be the ZERO point.  The next rivet on the same seat or the next seat
doesn’t have movement over time.  The next train car has movement over time as the car’s proceed along an uneven track. A flying
airplane has movement over time

A stellar position system (SPS) with calibration for stellar movement and with computerized conversion can be used to allow any point
in all of existence to be considered to be stationary and have that frames x,y,z coordinates apply to all things in existence. This
process allows any frame of reference to be the universal ZERO point that is relatively stationary in all of existence.  Through
computerized conversion, a rivet on a train or a spike on an embankment or a call button on a flying aircraft can be point ZERO.  All
people can select any computerized calibrated and converted ZERO point as the stationary frame of reference.  Thus, all points in all
existence can simultaneously have an infinite number of locations descriptions based on which point in all of existence is selected as
relatively stationary.  

NOTE: the historical movement of the stars is plotted to address their movement.  Thus, their movement is considered when
calibrating and converting to any ZERO movement point. The stars aren’t the ZERO frame.  The ZERO point is specified by any person
and they use their computerized converted and calibrated SPS to locate point ZERO and all locations based on that ZERO point.  

So we have SPS coordinates for all things and all things are moving except the arbitrarily selected ZERO point.   

Now we have SPS locations for:     
- An embankment observer
- A train observer,  
- Airplane observers A and B
- Infinite number of observers.  
- Various points in the arbitrarily selected ZERO point frame of reference. Those various points include: Seat rivets on a train, spikes
on a train track, airport runway begin points A and B. We also have some Einstein type thought experiment airplanes that takeoff and
move at the speed of light.

At time 0 - all components have SPS locations for:

Train-----------------------------------------------------m--- a few feet from  M and residing on the earth
Airplane on runway--- A
Airplane on runway----------------------------------------------------------------------B

Now which ever frame is considered to be stationary, the train and embankment observers and all other observers know the common
SPS coordinates of the airport runway and the airplanes where the airplanes simultaneously took off.  All observers know the
simultaneous takeoff time to go along with the SPS coordinates.  All observers know or can find the SPS coordinates of all things
including the other observer at the time the airplanes take off.

Later, at time S all components have SPS locations for with the train car as the ZERO frame:

Train---------------------------------------------------------m----over 1,566,000 miles from M and the earth in 1 hr
Airplane on runway-----------A
Airplane on runway-----------B

In the 2 above diagrams, a rivet on the train is the intersection point for the single ZERO point that isn’t moving while all of existence is
identified from that ZERO movement point.  

Thus, we see:

- the train rivet ZERO point didn’t move,
- the embankment spikes moved in unison,  
- the airplane A moved toward m and arrived at a common SPS location description for M
- the airplane B moved past m and arrived at a common SPS location description for M

We see that the airplanes didn’t arrive at m simultaneously but m knows both airplanes took off simultaneously.  He has that
knowledge because he has all the shared information about all SPS locations from time to time. That information us used to continue
to calibrate the SPS.  

Since m knows that both airplanes took off simultaneously, he knows they moved at different speeds to arrive simultaneously at M.  

Now you might say that the laws of physics don’t allow the light speed airplanes to travel faster than the speed of light.  That isn’t the
issue of this thought experiment.  The issue is the simultaneous timing of the take off of the airplanes and the awareness or
observation of those simultaneous take offs by 2 or more observers.  

The experiment shows that 2 or more observers can know the simultaneous take off times of 2 or more events. The experiment also
confirms that the light from 2 or more simultaneous events won’t arrive at all observers at the same time.  The experiment confirms
that arrival time of indications of prior events at a location doesn’t represent the time event happened.  

The speed of light issue mentioned above is small when compared to the bigger issue of the supposed stationary ZERO point train
car having the earth move from under the train car.  Since the train car isn’t moving, and since the earth is moving, the train car must
either: reside in open space an instant after the ZERO point on the train is specified; or, the train has a moving relationship with the

With or without the SPS coordinates that are used to track and calculate movement, the issue of the earth moving from under the train
applies.  If the train isn’t moving, and the earth is spinning at 1,000 mps at the equator and it is moving 67,000 mps around the sun
and it is moving over 1,500,000 mps through the galaxy, the earth will move from under the train at some speed greater than
1,566,000 mps.  So, in one hour, the stationary train will change from being a few feet or miles from the embankment and the light
speed airplanes to over 1,566,000 miles from them.    

All that earth movement and the space bound ZERO movement train mean there is a relationship between the moving earth and the
supposedly stationary train.  Thus, we have a hierarchy of relativity.  

Copyright Don Edward Sprague. All rights reserved. 26, April, 2010, updated 27, 28 April 2010