|Documentation of the commercial path to the Internet.
Part 2. Various articles from news letters and
announcements from 1985 to 1988.
A game changer became apparent with the INFOExpress and AskInfo
announcement in 1985. After that announcement, everybody in the
network world knew of IBM's Business Model to Inter-Network the world.
All the competitors of the IBM IN knew they needed to deal with the
prospects of the business world being connected to IBM IN. Everybody in
the networking world could see the Business Model and see the
productivity improvement potential. After that announcement, the TCP/IP
developers knew they needed to adopt the commercial Business Mode
and to develop the NSF net with a version of TCP/IP that could participate
in the Business Model world.
The following is a copy of the November 1985 announcement of the first
formal IBM Electronic Customer support activity through the shared inter-
enterprise online data network. Before this announcement, IBM IN used
special bids to provide electronic customer support.
Some time after this announcement, in a meeting with IBM IN executives,
I predicted that within 5 to 10 years, people will have their electronic
address on their business cards and in advertisements. They all laughed
at the time. Later, they added their Email address to their business cards.
The Business Model of the IBM Electronic Customer Support (ECS) was
the leading example. It made it easy to promote the idea that any
business or government agency could use the same connection to do
their form of ECS. Today's daily any to any electronic communication
seems logical. Back then, it was thinking in the future.
This Remote Screen Viewing Support Facility (RSVSF)
article is from the Janurary/February 1987 Network
News. This is another example of IBM Electronic
Customer support and electronic business activities
through the shared Inter-enterprise network.
I architected the solution which was to make IBM
Cooperative Viewing Facility available on the multi-
RSVSF allowed an electronic meeting of up to 12
people from any location attached to the Inter-
enterprise network. All participants could view the
data displayed on one terminal.
NOTE: I consider Gregg Fox to have been one of the
best marketing representatives on the team.
This RSVSF article is from the February 1987 ISG
This Internal marketing team article is from the
March/April 1987 Network News.
People laughed at some of my earlier predictions
about everyone using E-mail and Global Inter-
enterprise networking. It did not take long for my
predictions to become reality.
In this article, the team works to improve IBM's use of
the inter-enterprise network.
I referred to IBM as IBM's most important customer.
We moved IBM to electronic business of all forms.
After IBM set the example and stimulated connections
to the shared network, other enterprises developed
their own ECS activity. This team worked with all
parts of IBM including the Chairman. Eventually the
chairman shortened Electronic business to e-
Government using the Commercial Business Model
This article is one of the very many examples of
government using the IBM Information Network
electronic interstate highway. The article mentions the
competition for the business. Once IBM defined the
business opportunity to be shared inter-enterprise
networking, competition emerged. Even the
government Internet path people picked up on the
concept and ran to get in front of the parade. IBM had
a significant advantage as a result of the simple
concept of the Electronic Customer Support (ECS)
Architecture that became the IBM IN Architecture and
Strategy. Most business and government agencies
had IBM computers. Most of them could see the
advantage in having a single line from their internal
network to the IBM network for ECS from IBM. Once
connected to IBM for ECS, it was virtually no
additional cost to do other electronic business.
This 50 state government use of IBM IN happened
while a new IP was being considered, and developed.
Global before IP
This May 1988 article shows early global online inter-
enterprise services through a single shared network.
This concept was adopted by other online services
providers. Eventually the closed government Internet
adopted the commercial concept. They relaxed the
fair use rules that prohibited business that facilitated
the rapid massive growth of the IBM Information
Network that eventually became the IBM Global
Network that gave rise to the Internet.
IBM's network was global while IP was in the early
stages of development.
So long, telephone tag.
This email article is from the May/June 1988 Network
News. As a result of my work to get the any to any
email activity going, I was given the moniker of
Grandfather of email. Electronic mail wasn't new. Most
large business and government had internal offices
systems that allowed people to do intra-enterprise
I originally use the term email to specifically drive the
connection to have IBM do email with it's trading
- The first step was email between IBM and it's business partners.
- Next was multi-enterprise and multi-industry email including
government agencies doing email.
- My goal was to eventually be able to have a good email process for
communication with my friends and family.
This email article is from IBM ISG Marketing News
This page tells a great deal about the history of online
services and extent of influence or significance of the
commercial path as compared to the government
path. While early versions of the Internet Protocol
were being considered and developed, the BITNET
was running. In the article, BITNET is described as an
interdisciplinary telecommunication network
connecting universities and research worldwide. It is
clear that the BITNET is a bigger part of the Internet
history than the military heritage path. When the
BITNET was merged with the Internet path, it was a
case of the little guy taking over the big guy. The
Internet path people ran to get in front of BITNET path
I worked on the project to connect the BITNET to IBM
IN. I presented the IBM story to the BITNET people.
Obviously the BITNET extended it's reach by
connecting to the IBM IN which was the worlds largest
shared data network. Obviously the BITNET and
Internet people knew of the IBM concept of a shared
data network for inter-enterprise electronic
communication through an interconnected network.
Obviously they knew of my statement that anything
that can be recorded electronically can be delivered
electronically. I told them when I presented to them. In
fact, I presented to tens of thousands of people in
hundreds of events including industry conferences.
The IBM Global Network had a business strategy and
technical design for any to any when authorized.
The Service manager had security built in.
Secure single ID Logon was provided in the Service
Manager gateway with authorization passed on to any
- There wasn't a need to have various different IDs for each destination.
- That capability was lost when IP was adopted.
Electronic business has a long history with many small
steps and some significant steps. I list some of the major
steps. The first major step was Telegraph. Then there was
teletype and telephone. Next was IBM's SABRE system
with 2 computers and 2,000 terminals. Next was IBM's
VNET. Then IBM small computers doing dial in support.
Then the Electronic Customer Support (ECS) Architecture
and Strategy. Then VIdeotex in France. Then BITNET
modeled after IBM's VNET, Then IBM adoption of ECS.
Then the rapid growth of the IBM Information Network as
the above documents show. Then the BITNET connection
to IBM IN. Additional steps include dial in services like
AOL emerging then connecting to the shared data network.
Some very small steps were the early versions of Internet
Protocol. A medium step was the late 1980s and early 1990s
development of another Internet Protocol. Without any IP
concrete, the electronic highway of generic Internet
business existed and rapidly grew. By the time the
commercial providers adopted IP concrete, the electronic
highway business model was in place and being delivered
by IBM GN and other commercial providers.
The Internet protocol has advantages over SNA and the
standards group developed languages. It is a form of
operating network that dynamically updates network and
content data. It has some significant disadvantages. It's
initial requirement was for a network that was tightly
closed to a user community but wide open once the user is
in or on the network. It was like a family picnic in the park.
The commercial networks languages were secure like
restaurant and food court dining. The military path people
still want the same family picnic environment. They saw
the IBM IN commercial approach of a single shared
network with any to any when authorized. When the military
path Internet people promoted the NSF contract to have
the development of another IP, they were running to get
in front of the BITNET so they could run to get in front of
the IBM Information Network parade and claim credit for
leading the any to any parade that was in place.
The technology of IP took good hard work. It was a
technology to address a limited business requirement.
The government path to the Internet and IP concrete didn't
give us the electronic highway business requirement that
led to the Internet business solution we know today.
People who run to get in front of the parade aren't the
business innovators. Those who originally organized the
parade are the innovators.
For daily activity, it really doesn’t matter who did what in
process of developing the Internet we know today. For
the most part, it really doesn't matter that some people run
to get in front of the parade then claim to be leading the
parade. It only matters when looking for the truth or when
looking for people to organize another parade. That is the
reality of the Internet. I didn't bother pursuing the truth for
years because for the most part, it doesn't matter.
However; it is frustrating to hear people proclaim the
government invented the Internet when in realty,
commercial business contributed the most to the creation
of IP and the Internet. In fact, IBM provided more
significant contributions than any other entity. IBM helped
develop the IP that was adopted by the existing
commercial network providers. Most important, IBM IN
gave us the inter-enterprise business requirement and
solution that led to the Internet.
The electronic highway is like the Eisenhower interstate
system. IP is like concrete used on the highway.
The electronic highway parade was going great for over 10
years when the government team ran to get in front of the
parade with IP concrete and claimed to be leading the
electronic highway parade.
In an article called “What Is The Internet (And What Makes It Work) - December, 1999 By Robert E. Kahn and Vinton G.
Cerf” they write:
For a long time, the federal government did not allow organizations to connect to the Internet to carry out commercial
activities. By 1988, it was becoming apparent, however, that the Internet's growth and use in the business sector
might be seriously inhibited by this restriction.
When the Internet Business Model was 8 years old and in place, it was adopted by the developers of IP.
|How to have a Secure Internet
We can not have good security if we do not know who is supposed to do what. That means, great security
begins with a detailed registration process to provide comprehensive information about each user and the
connections they approve.
In the past, there were different communication methods or languages for the many Value Added networks.
They all adopted a common communication language and became Internet Service Providers. They did not
adopt a common network management structure. There is a new Internet Secure Internet Architecture that
provides a common network management structure that all ISPs can adopt.