Sprague Light Race with Sagnac effect.

Hence forth known as the Sprague Light Race

Don E. Sprague,

15 April 2009,
Updated 12 Jan 2011
Updated 25 August 2011

Copyright, All rights reserved


The Sagnac effect is shown using a rotating disk with mirrors and light showing different arrival of light based on the
direction of the disk rotation. The Sprague Light Race is a way to test for the Sagnac directly from the emitter(s). With
Sagnac, there are multiple moving mirrors which provide several reflection with Galilean transformation additive
velocities of the initial emitted light.  The Sprague Light Race corresponds to a form of a single Sagnac Effect Galilean
Transformation additive velocity of the initial light event.

This race is somewhat like a dual star.  Lights from dual stars travel the speed of light while the lights are within the
fields of the individual stars.  After the lights leave the fields of the stars, it travels c as compared to space.  

In dual stars and the Sprague Light race experiments:   
- Lights travel some distance inside the individual moving frame fields of the stars or moving chambers.  
- The same lights leave the moving frame fields and change speed to travel c for some distance in open space.

The original Sprague light race had emitters on wheels.   The new versions have emitters and moving chambers or

One test has dual lights in dual moving chambers: Another version has one light that splits with part moved into each of
the two moving chambers where it travels with the chambers then exits to travel to a common open space destination.

Two chambers with emitters:

Two emitters in two large chambers perhaps the size of train cars moving different directions. When they align, both
lights are emitted from the fixed emitters in the moving chambers. Different devices can be used to accomplish the task
of having moving chambers with light emitters that align and simultaneously pulse to emit light that travels within the
chambers then leave the chambers and travel to a common destination point with detectors.  Larger chambers provide
more distance of light travel inside the chamber.  

The lights will travel c as compared to the chambers while it is in the moving chambers,  After the lights leave the
chambers, it will travel c as compared to room or place where the experiment is conducted.   

One emitter with light that goes to two chambers:

This could be two long train cars at the back of two trains. The front of each train car could have mirrors that reflects
the lights out the rear of each train car.  When the front of the two cars align, the single light simultaneously arrives at
the mirrors inside the front of the long train cars going opposite directions,  The lights could split with part going
through a Michelson– Morley experiment to verify the light travels c as compared to the long train cars. The lights will
travel c inside the train cars.  It will then exit both cars and travel c as compared to the tracks and arrive at distant
detectors.  The lights will arrive a different times based on the speed and length of the train cars.  

Until now we have conjecture that the speed of light isn’t additive. Every measurement of the speed of light has been
on a moving frame of reference. That is, every measurement except the Sagnac effect that shows additive velocities.  
We have other data that indicates that the speed of light is additive.  Superluminal motion is the movement of the
position of a light source in distant galaxies which seems to indicate typical speeds of up to 10c.  The supporting data
is considered to be a result of an optical illusion. Relativity is built on the concept of the elimination of the meaning of
time as a result of simultaneous events not appearing to be simultaneous across moving frames of reference. The
words to describe the optical illusion of superluminal motion are the same words used to validate the illusion of
simultaneous events not being simultaneous in the theory of relativity.

We are told that time and space is variable because a person on a moving train doesn't know he is on a moving train
so he doesn't know that he moved from the mid point between the simultaneous lights.  

The Sagnac effect explained:

Don E. Sprague Copyright 28 Nov 2010  

The Sagnac effect:  A rotating disk with mirrors and light show different arrival of light based on the direction of the disk
rotation. An analogy would be an imaginary base ball and a bat. The imaginary ball is thrown at 100 mph then bounces
or ricochets at 100 mph.  Consider a bat is simply held above the front line on home plate, the ball can be tossed and
the ball will bounce back at 100 mph.  Another time, the batter swings 1 mph and the ball bounces back at 100 mph.  
Now consider that the ball is thrown again at 100 mph and the batter swings backwards at 1 mph. With the stationary
bat, the velocities are 100 + 0 = 100 mph.  With the normal swing bat, the velocities are 100 + 1 = 101 mph.  With the
reverse swing bat, the velocities are 100 - 1 = 99 mph. The velocities are basically to demonstrate the combined
motion at impact.  The ball speed is constant at 100 mph regardless.  In the Sagnac effect, the normal swing arrives at
the batter first, the ball from the stationary bat arrives second, the reverse ball from the reverse swing bat arrives third.
In all cases, the ball speed is 100 mph to the bat and 100 mph from the bat.  The issue is the reality of the Sagnac
effect that is simulated in the analogy.  An explanation could be associated with turnaround and compression.  In all
three cases, the ball and the bat come in contact at the same place.  A variable is the duration of time and location
they remain in contact along with the compression or distance change for when the aren’t in contact any longer.   The
normal swing bat moves toward the pitcher so the ball compression location and space shrinks. Also, the point they no
longer remain in contact has moved toward the pitcher. With the bat moving away from the pitcher, the compression is
delayed resulting in a delayed bounce or ricochet. Thus, the distance for the ball to travel is different for all three times
the ball is thrown. The moved departure point makes a shorter total travel distance. Thus, a shorter travel time.  

The claim is made that the Sagnac effect is less in space.  The number of bounces and the velocity of the compression
space impacts the overall effect.  In space, the velocity of the compression space is greater resulting in quicker
turnaround.  The biggest issue is that there can be significantly fewer bounces in space.

The diagrams at the linked page show how sound waves and light waves outside
the emitter medium are altered as compared to the waves inside the emitter
medium.    An animation of the moving car depicts the sound or light as viewed by
various observers outside the car.  

The animation needs to be expanded to include observers inside the car which
are equally valid observers.

To the passenger observers, the sound or light inside the car is not
shifted because of the motion of  the emitter.

In reality, both outside observers and inside observers know the observations of
the other observers. In Einstein relativity, the outside and inside observers do not
know the observations of the other observers because he does not allow all
observers to have equally valid information of equally valid observers.